8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
PREMPRO and PREMPHASE should not be used during pregnancy [see Contraindications (4)]. There appears to be little or no increased risk of birth defects in children born to women who have used estrogens and progestins as an oral contraceptive inadvertently during early pregnancy.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
PREMPRO and PREMPHASE should not be used during lactation. Estrogen administration to nursing women has been shown to decrease the quantity and quality of the breast milk. Detectable amounts of estrogen and progestin have been identified in the breast milk of women receiving these drugs. Caution should be exercised when PREMPRO or PREMPHASE is administered to a nursing woman.
8.4 Pediatric Use
PREMPRO and PREMPHASE are not indicated in children. Clinical studies have not been conducted in the pediatric population.
8.5 Geriatric Use
There have not been sufficient numbers of geriatric women involved in clinical studies utilizing PREMPRO or PREMPHASE to determine whether those over 65 years of age differ from younger subjects in their response to PREMPRO or PREMPHASE.
The Women's Health Initiative Studies
In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy (daily CE [0.625 mg] plus MPA [2.5 mg] versus placebo), there was a higher relative risk of nonfatal stroke and invasive breast cancer in women greater than 65 years of age [see Clinical Studies (14.6)].
In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy (daily CE [0.625 mg]-alone versus placebo), there was a higher relative risk of stroke in women greater than 65 years of age [see Clinical Studies (14.6)].
The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study
In the WHIMS ancillary studies of postmenopausal women 65 to 79 years of age, there was an increased risk of developing probable dementia in women receiving estrogen plus progestin or estrogen-alone when compared to placebo [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), and Clinical Studies (14.7)].
Since both ancillary studies were conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women8 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), and Clinical Studies (14.7)].
8.6 Renal Impairment
The effects of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of PREMPRO or PREMPHASE have not been studied.